When it comes to corporate pollution, Indian activists say that last week’s verdict in Bhopal proves that there’s one rule for the west and another for developing countries.
Last Monday, victims of the world’s worst industrial disaster stood outside their local court in Bhopal, India in a state of apprehension.
Just metres away, inside the courtroom, seven former executives of the pesticide giant Union Carbide of India Ltd (UCIL) awaited the verdict. They were reminded how, on December 3, 1984, nearly 40 tonnes of poisonous gas leaked from their local factory and swept across the city, killing the loved ones of those waiting outside.
The seven men stood accused of criminal negligence that led to the death of more than 15,000 people and continues to affect the health of more than 500,000.
The sentence was two years imprisonment. Two hours later they were released on bail.
When news of the verdict broke, US Assistant Secretary of State for South Asia Robert Blake told reporters, “Obviously this was one of the greatest industrial tragedies and industrial accidents in human history.
“We hope that this verdict helps to bring some closure to the victims and their families.”
Meanwhile in the US, President Obama was vowing to make heads roll. Those responsible at BP, he declared would be held to bear for the estimated 89 million gallons of oil that was spewing into the gulf of New Mexico. He would not rest until the oil was cleaned up and people could go back to their lives.
The difference in these responses, argues Rachna Dhingra, from International Campaign for Justice in Bhopal, demonstrates that when it comes to companies polluting the environment and endangering citizens, there’s one rule for the West and another for the developing world.
“Obama cannot have double standards on this issue. He is holding BP accountable and is going to ‘kick their ass’ and get every cent. He cannot have a double standard for companies operating in India,” Dhingra insists.
“As to our Prime Minister [Manmohan Singh], he also needs to take a cue from Obama and stand up for his own people.”
Last week’s verdict in Bhopal whipped the Indian media into a frenzy. Pages of print and hours of television were dedicated to the condemnation of the trial’s outcome. ‘Rich people always get away’, headlines decried. ‘Justice was buried’.
But as Dhingra says, justice was pushed six feet under more than a decade ago. In 1996 the Supreme Court of India watered down the charges against UCIL executives, placing the blame with its American-based parent Union Carbide Corporation (UCC). Bhopal’s local court gave the maximum sentence possible.
“Noone is saying that it’s not an injustice, but this court couldn’t have done anything else,” Dhingra points out.
The ongoing injustice, according to Dhingra, is the lack of political will from America and India to hold UCC and its former chairman Warren Anderson to account.
When the disaster in Bhopal occurred UCC was the majority shareholder of UCIL. Consequently, in February 1989, India’s Supreme Court ordered UCC to pay $470 million in compensation to the Bhopal gas victims.
By paying the compensation, UCC says it has washed its hands of any responsibility in Bhopal. All claims, its states, were settled 18 years ago. In 1994 UCC severed the umbilical chord further, by selling its majority share of UCIL and becoming a subsidiary of Dow Chemicals. Soon after the Indian government took control of the UCC site in Bhopal. UCC now says it has “no interest in or liability for the Bhopal site”.
Despite this, Anderson still faces criminal charges in India and last week’s verdict only served to renew calls for his extradition to India.
But activists are skeptical.
There’s ample evidence to support Anderson’s extradition, Dhingra says, but no political will.
“The problem is that the Indian Government is more concerned about foreign investment than its people.”
This attitude has left the people of Bhopal with a continuing legacy of pollution and crippling health problems. I visited the dusty city last year to find out how its people were coping 25 years after the disaster.
Those I met had all, in one way or another, been affected. Some simply had parents battling manageable respiratory problems but many had stories like Kumru Nisha, who lived a kilometer away from the factory. Her two sisters have since died from gas-related illnesses and she suffers from depression and tuberculosis. Others I spoke with witnessed their whole families wiped out in a single night.
However, the most devastating aspect is that the disaster continues. Two new generations have been born bearing the burden of the toxic legacy. Thousands have been born with twisted limbs, abnormal brain development and respiratory disorders. At the Chingari Trust’s clinic, physiotherapists placed children into specially designed chairs that strengthened their back muscles – in the hopes that they might one day be able to sit upright without assistance.
With hundreds of tonnes of toxic waste remaining at the factory site and people continuing to drink contaminated ground water, the legacy is set to continue.
Twenty-five years on, activists, victims and health workers are still fighting for proper compensation and a cleanup of the factory site. No comprehensive testing of the factory and the surrounding area has been completed, so noone knows just how far the contamination has spread.
Activists continue to call on UCC to provide genuine research, monitoring and long term medical care of the victims, as well as to release the medical information on the leaked gases.
“One of the biggest challenges survivors and these new generations face has been the lack of information both with regard to the composition of the leaked gases and the chemicals people are being exposed to in a routine manner because of ground water contamination. We also do not have information on the health effects of these chemicals because UCC continues to withhold it as trade secrets,” Satinath Sarangi, the managing trustee of the Sambhavna Clinic in Bhopal, told me last year.
Dhingra says it’s vital that the US and Indian governments force UCC and UCIL to bear the full responsibility of what happened in Bhopal more than 25 years ago – not just for victims but for the development of India.
“It’s very important that we get justice in Bhopal so it doesn’t set a precedence that overseas companies can come, kill, pollute and leave without any consequences.”
On June 7, UCC released a statement claiming that “Union Carbide and its officials are not subject to the jurisdiction of the Indian court since they did not have any involvement in the operation of the plant, which was owned and operated by UCIL.”
Published in newmatilda.com on June 15, 2010